Thursday, November 28, 2019

Cultural Event Report Essay Example

Cultural Event Report Paper Cultural Event Report Name: Course: Date: We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural Event Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural Event Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Cultural Event Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Cultural Event Report The Smithsonian American Art Museum was located in Washington DC. As it was close enough, I decided to take a visit and see what it had to offer. The day of the visit was on 5th December. In my opinion, I felt that by studying the art quietly on my own was the best way to gain an understanding of the assignment. At the entrance of the museum, I was greeted by a friendly woman at the front desk who also handed me a map of the museum and a pamphlet. The museum was very clean and large. On realizing this, I felt confident that I would get the two pieces of art that interested me enough to note. Inside the museum, I noticed that it had been designed according to the broad variety of American art. Some of the significant artists that stood out from where I was standing included Thomas Moran, Winslow Homer and Edmonia Lewis. The hallway was designed at the center of the museum where it branched into the different rooms. The two main public areas held most of their artwork: the Lunder Conservation Center and the Luce Foundation Center for American Art. Of the two, the Luce Foundation Center for American Art was more prominent as it presented all the art in glass cases. Some of the artwork included sculptures, paintings on screens and crafts (Fitzgerald, 2008). The Lunder Conservation Center on the other hand had behind-the-scenes expositions of preservation work. The center was designed in a way that displayed the conservation staff doing the work in recreating and preserving artwork. At the museum, one of the artworks that impressed me the most was the Renwick Gallery. The Renwick Gallery concentrates on the American craft and the decorations from the 19th to the 21st century. The gallery lies in the national Historic Landmark building that was originally the Corcoran gallery of Art. The history of the gallery described that it was first built in 1874 but was later relocated to another site. Efforts by Secretary of the Smithsonian S. Dillon Ripley and President Lyndon B. Johnson made sure that the building was turned over to the Smithsonian administration. The Ghost Clock and the Game Fish were the most spectacular aspects. After finishing with the Renwick Gallery, I walked around the outer compound and had a few snacks before finally ending up at the American Art main building that had several paintings on display. The Smithsonian American Art Museum contains a lot of history on America and other countries that shaped the continent. Her I learnt that the museum doubles up as an exhibition center where over 14 galas have been organized that focus on America culture and history. The famous â€Å"Alexis Rockman: A Fable for Tomorrow† exhibition was hosted at the same museum in 2011. The museum has also embraced technology to improve the provision of relevant information to the customers that come. They have online tours that I browsed through courtesy of the free wireless internet at the site. I also noted that the Major Rafael Soriano paintings were very pricey and uniquely painted in a life-like manner (Slowik, 2006). I realized that the museum was a vital source of history for America based on several observations. First, the museum is home to many artists of the Renaissance and post- Renaissance eras that helped shape the economic and political dimensions. Artists such as Karen LaMonte and Albert Ryder have produced extraordinary works that reflect global cultures as well as the experiences by Americans. The influence of modernism on the artistic expressions within America has been great and diverse in nature. Modernism applies the past artistic works to create new works. It began in the 20th century when artists started to reflect on the effects and events of the two world wars that were later followed by the Industrial Revolution. English poets for instance started focusing on the uprising Christianity within America when writing their pieces. My visit of the Smithsonian American Art Museum ended with me joining part of our guided tour of the rest of the facilities. References Fitzgerald, O. P., Smithsonian American Art Museum. (2008). Studio furniture of the Renwick Gallery, Smithsonian American Art Museum. East Petersburg: Fox Chapel Pub. Slowik, T. J. Smithsonian American Art Museum., (2006). America’s art, Smithsonian American Art Museum. New York: Abrams.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

6 steps to dealing with a forgetful boss

6 steps to dealing with a forgetful boss Every job has a secret component that never appears on a job description or annual review: managing your relationship with your boss. Unless you’re at the very top of your company’s food chain, you have a manager who works above and with you to make sure you’re doing what you need to do. But although this is a highly professional relationship, it’s also a human one, with your personality and your boss’s in play. If you have a boss who tends to forget things, or has a short attention span, the work day can feel a bit like Groundhog Day as you explain and re-explain things- but it doesn’t have to be that way. Let’s go over some strategies you can use to make sure your boss has all the info she needs, while helping you keep your sanity.1. Put it in writingWhen you come out of a meeting, or discuss something with your boss, follow up with notes soon after. That way, you have a record of what you talked about, what next steps were, what eve ryone’s responsibilities will be, etc. When your boss comes to you later to ask about topic X, you’ll be able to say, â€Å"Oh, I have the notes on that from last week. I can resend.† Then it’s just a quick email forward, and not a rehash discussion of things you’d already covered.2. Be proactiveDon’t wait for your boss to come to you with a request like, â€Å"Can you update me on X?† or â€Å"I’m blanking on what you were going to do next for Y.† Sending short, regular status updates on various projects can help keep your boss in the loop (preventing queries and you having to stop and explain things), and jog his memory about what you’re doing, and when.3. Target your informationIf you’re dealing with a boss’s short attention span (or busy-ness, or distraction) keep your discussions focused. If you have a status meeting where you update on a number of projects, send an agenda with the most importan t items highlighted, so that you can keep the discussion focused on specific points. Instead of having large meetings on a range of topics, consider having shorter meetings, each on a separate and targeted topic. Staying on-topic can prevent attention and discussions from wandering too far from the subject at hand.4. Use email more efficientlyNothing gets lost in an inbox faster than an email subject line of â€Å"Hey, quick question† or â€Å"Meeting to discuss.† The ease and portability of email often makes for casual writing, but whether you’re sending an email from your desk or on the fly from your phone, take the time to make the subject line as specific as possible. That makes it more findable in your boss’s inbox, and may help head off follow-up questions that have already been answered.5. Tailor to your boss’s personalityThink about what the core issue is here. Is he forgetful because he’s in constant meetings, and just doesn’ t have time to process information? Does she do better with visual presentations than with long-winded discussions? It’s like how teachers adapt their classrooms to how students learn. If you consider why your boss is forgetful or isn’t paying attention, it can help you figure out how to attack the issue. It doesn’t mean your boss is doing a bad job- just that her style may be different from your own.6. Turn to technologyIf you don’t feel comfortable setting reminders for your boss, there are ways to let tech do that for you. Productivity apps like Asana or Evernote can help you manage your own workload and projects, but they also have built-in tools like the ability to assign tasks to other people, send email reminders, etc. It can be a gentle way to remind your boss that he needs to send you the information you need, or sign off on something before you can proceed. Bonus: it’ll keep you more organized too!If you have a manager whose style can see m absent-minded at times, don’t despair. You can’t necessarily change your boss or his style, but you can work on the way you â€Å"manage up† to help maintain your own productivity and peace of mind.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Bullying Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 7

Bullying - Essay Example Secondly, bullying may take place as a way of shifting attention. For example, it may occur to conceal bad things taking place in an organization such as dishonesty and misuse of funds. On the other hand, bullying in the workplace leads to various effects. Some of the effects include demoralization, lack of teamwork, and makes one feel alienated (Tim Field Foundation 1). Bullying may also make an organization inefficient and unproductive. Bullying behaviors are also shown to be behind all form of negative things experienced in the workplace. Such negative things include favoritism, harassment, unfairness, abuse, and conflict and violence. On the other hand, workplace bullying is said to occur in stages. These stages include ‘isolation, control and subjugation, and elimination’ (Tim Field Foundation 1). Isolation is said to be characterized by criticism, fault finding, and being sidelined. Control and subjugation, on the other hand, is characterized by patronization, humiliation, and being a target of gossip. Elimination is characterized by subjection to disciplinary procedures that end with the

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Article Critique Assessment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Article Critique Assessment - Essay Example This paper aims at discussing the article and to find the issues and possible loop holes of the paper. The main reason this article has been chosen is that it deals with the security threats of eCommerce as well as the various threats to the accounting information systems. The authors have also discussed the implications to the management as well. This article is appropriate in the current times, where almost every business has launched an eCommerce website and the numbers of businesses online are constantly increasing every minute, this article is helpful in bringing out the threats being faced and the repercussions that these threats have on the management helps the businesses focus on the factors that need to be taken into account. Hence this article is very relevant in the current times and to a great extent provides the readers with a clear and well explained list of implications on various parties including, management, accountants and auditors, and academics. The article is al so very insightful as it provides a clear explanation of the need for security which can be easily overlooked in the current times. On the whole, the article provides a great insight into the security issues that relate to accounting information systems and excellent ways to reduce the threat levels of these systems. The article is very effective with a detailed explanation of the various aspects and views for different audiences. The article by Beard and Wen has touched upon a few essential aspects of accounting Information systems. The authors have discussed a wide range of issues that are being faced by companies across the world. An excellent point that the authors have included in the paper is the issues that are being faced due to the wide expansion of the internet and the newer opportunities that are being opened up for almost every business and the easy accessibility to break down all barriers of trade and all the physical barriers. The article has a major focus

Monday, November 18, 2019

Emergency Nursing Assessment Framework Assignment

Emergency Nursing Assessment Framework - Assignment Example Within the nursing process, use of the stated framework has been demonstrated to be effective as a contextualised framework relevant to emergency conditions. This framework consists of 5 steps of history taking, potential red flags, clinical examination, investigations, and nursing interventions (Curtis, Murphy, Hoy, & Lewis, 2009). The inspection of his chest revealed intercostal muscle recession, and auscultation revealed diminished air entry at both bases of the lungs with crackles audible in the right base. The respiratory rate was higher than the baseline at 28 per min with deep and laboured breathing. His SpO2 was 89% on Hudson mask at 6 L of oxygen with elevation of PaCO2 to 54. All these information indicate that he was in acute respiratory failure (Delerme & Ray, 2008). The clinical picture indicates that this alteration in respiratory function has occurred over a short period of time. This patient was at baseline hypoxaemic indicated by his need for supplemental oxygen to maintain his oxygen saturations above 95%. Given his age and potential blood loss due to fractured neck of right femur this is expected, although the history does not suggest any chronic respiratory disease at the baseline (Calverley, 2003). This is an important part of history since quite frequently such patients develop acute respiratory failure superimposed on a chronic pulmonary condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is common in elderly men of his age (O'Malley, Marcantonio, Murkofsky, Caudry, & Buchanan, 2007). While initially 3 L of oxygen per min via nasal prongs ensured a 99% of SpO2 of 99%, postoperatively in 2 days' time, his condition deteriorated. The assessment while trying to reach a diagnosis must include an attempt to determine causes for such changes. Although high temperature of 38.5 degrees Celsius may contribute to higher rate of breathing, the laboured breathing and findings at auscultation strongly suggests respiratory failure, which is further confirmed by rise of PaCO2 to above 50 (El Solh & Ramadan, 2006). While a fall of PaO2 to below 50 is expected, given his oxygen supplementation, this may not occur always unless there is severe respiratory failure. As expected the pH is 7.30 which is less than 7.35 indicating respiratory acidosis along with oxygen destaturation indicated by SaO2 of 89%, which is below normal (Antonelli, Pennisi, & Conti, 2003). The X-ray picture confirms right sided basal consolidation and collapse, which may indicate an infective episode, which per haps is the cause of this failure, since the other reason of overuse of PCA can be ruled out through the patient's statement. Q2. The doctor initially prescribed two antibiotics. The later appearance of fever and concomitant respiratory failure due to consolidation and right sided pleural effusion leading to collapse indicated that this infection has been acquired in the hospital.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Case Study Of Johnson And Johnson Commerce Essay

Case Study Of Johnson And Johnson Commerce Essay For many Chinese people, they could buy some foreign products since 1980s, because many foreign companies have set up in China at that period, and huge amount of imported products were sold in Chinese market, which means the effect of the globalization can be seen in our daily necessities. In 1982, the first Johnson Johnson operating company was opened in China, then a series of products of Johnson Johnson entered Chinese market. Why Johnson Johnson would like to enter other foreign market, especially in developing country like China? This report will examine whether Johnson Johnson is an international corporation or a global corporation through two concept, corporate structure and geographical expansion. Although in previous studies, there is no sole definition of internationalization and globalization, this report will analyze Johnson Johnsons characteristics to support that it is a successful example of global corporations. Contents Introduction In todays competitive business environment, there are a lot of multinational enterprises. Like Johnson Johnson, it could be found in every country. However, in some studies, there is no clearly concept or explanation on whether the corporation is international or global. Many international corporations have been influenced by globalization where they would turn into global corporations. Therefore, the aim of this report is to analyse whether Johnson Johnson is an international firm or a global firm, and discuss what global characteristics it possesses. In order to do a case study of Johnson Johnson, its corporate structure will be described and geographical expansion will be analysed. To summaries when and how did Johnson Johnson become a global corporation? By using a corporate geography perspective, this report will include the analysis of whether geographical expansion is a good way to enhance firms scale or not and if it could change international corporations into global cor porations. However, globalisation might be constrained somehow. Globalisation might also bring corporations more challenges, which could be seen in long run. In the world economy, the use of globalisation might be exaggerated. Internationalization and Globalisation There is no unequivocal definition of what is globalization. According to David DeBry (2001, p. 42), who pointed out that internationalisation is like creating a round-toed shoe that fits people with all types of feet. It is not as comfortable as a perfectly fitted shoe and doesnt fit snugly, but can be worn by many people. Whereas globalization refers to the trend of a more integrated and interdependent world economy. Dicken, P. (2011) mentioned that the concept of globalization became familiar gradually in the past 30 years. Globalization is the method to solve the worlds economic issues (Dicken, 2011). Globalisation might influence the form of companies, which leads to the changing from trade to Foreign Direct Investment (Dicken P. , 2003). Trade volume has increased by the progress of globalisation (Dicken P. , 2011), for example, Chinese people could barely purchase foreign products in China before 1980s until the government approved the reform of Chinese economy approaches. Whi lst the volume of import and export of China reaches a really high amount. Figure 1 Source from Dicken P. 2011 table 2.1 Figure 2 Source from Dicken P. 2011 table 2.2 Nowadays, people witness the establishment of international corporations and global corporations. The worlds largest 500 corporation are usually being classed multinational enterprises (MNEs). An example of global brands is Johnson Johnson. However, how to identify the difference between international corporations and global corporations? First of all, being international corporations, the quantity of branches and subsidiaries are limited, it could be in only one country. But global corporations have many branches and subsidiaries among all over the world. International corporations have some investment in at least one country, they search profitable opportunities, whereas global corporations use the world as an opportunity. For most global corporations, they need to build a global brand, a successful reputation built should link the name, products and logo to many people. For instance, people could hardly find substitute for many Johnson Johnson products, and the majority people have heard this name. According to Giorgio et al. (2002), there are two reasons to why a company should change from international to global company. On the one hand, a company could open its market worldwide. On the other hand, the company could lower its cost. Dicken (2003) demonstrated that a global corporation would be a firm that has the power to coordinate and control operations in a large number of counties (even if it does not own them), but whose geographically dispersed operations are functionally integrated, and not merely a diverse portfolio of activities. The background of Johnson Johnson The concept of corporate structure is the arrangements whereby the firm motivates, coordinates, appraises, and rewards the inputs and resources that belong to its coalition (Caves, 1980:66). Many successful corporations would establish famous branded products and develop different type of products (Caves, 1980). A firms corporate structure is depended on many issues. For example, when one company start up for only 5 years, its corporate structure would be less complex than company which founded 50 years ago. In Johnson Johnson, their board of directors is a group of people who meet a set of General Criteria for membership and are elected to the Board by our shareholders each year. We currently have 14 Board members, 12 of whom are independent under the rules of the New York Stock Exchange. (Johnson Johnson, 2012). Many large corporations tend to have the same corporate structures. It includes about five departments, which are Marketing, Finance, Accounting, Human Resource and IT. Usually corporate structure are four types as following (Dicken P. , 2011): Figure 3 (Source from Dicken P. 2011 Figure 5.8) It can be seen that global corporates structure is more complex than international corporates structure. For Johnson Johnson, the executive committee is the main management team, which is responsible for the operations. The corporate governance is formed by accounting controls, independent auditor, audit committee of their board of directors and business results. Figure 4C:UsersREDesktopConcept2.jpeg This figure shows the board of directors of Johnson Johnson. (Johnson Johnson, 2012) 3.1 A strategy of Johnson Johnson The reason why Johnson Johnson achieves such great success is that it has strict operating mode. (Johnson Johnson, 2012) 1. Market penetration Johnson Johnson has improved the share of market by increasing the quality of products, meanwhile, offering discount is an appropriate way to influence consumers habits and purchasing. 2. Market development It developed new markets to provide the same products for consumers who have the same requires in different countries. 3. Product development It developed new products to old consumers, which would expand popularity. 4. Diversification It provide new products to new markets. 5. Consolidation This step is to retain its stable relationship with consumers. Chandler stated that a firms growth is always through three strategies as following (Chandler, 1962): 1. Expansion is to widen the existing line to the same kinds of consumers. 2. New markets and sources of supplies are very important factors. 3. Developing a wide range of new products for different types of consumers As one of the largest and most comprehensive health care corporation in the world, Johnson Johnson has experienced vital growth in recent years. Johnson Johnson was founded by Robert Wood Johnson with two brothers in New Jersey in 1886. With the expansion and development of its business needs from the 1920 of the 20th century, Johnson Johnson has set up a lot of branches and acquired many companies among Europe, Asia, Australia and Africa. By today Johnson Johnson has established and acquired more than 250 branches and companies in over 57 countries, and has about 129,000 employees. Johnson Johnson is Ranked 42nd in fortune 500 list in 2012. (Johnson Johnson, 2012). In 1924, the first overseas operating company was set up in the United Kingdom, which indicated Johnson Johnson has started its foreign company period. In 1944, Johnson Johnson joined the New York Stock Exchange. (Johnson Johnson, 2012). Revenues of JJ has increased from only $7 billion in 1987 to more than $65 b illion in 2012. Profits increased at an even faster rate, from $329.5 million in 1987 to $9672 million in 2012. (FORTUNE 500, 2012) 3.2 Corporate Structure of Johnson Johnson For every MNE, as key driver of globalization, has its unique corporate structure on a wide variety of market, which influence the corporations management in marketplace. The main sector is the number and size distribution of sellers and buyers, height of barriers to enter and exit (Caves, 1980). Why Johnson Johnson can be called a global corporation is that it has complicated structure. It depends on the development and innovation, because Johnson Johnson has three business divisions: 3.2.1.. Consumer products Baby Care Skin and Hair Care Wound Care and Topicals Oral Health Care Womens Health Over-the-Counter Medicines Nutritionals Vision Care Online store The consumer products chain retail outlets are widespread all over the world, these products are sold to general public and both to wholesalers and directly to individuals, while Pharmaceutical products and Medical device Diagnostics are depend on acquisition of other companies. 3.2.2. Pharmaceutical products Janssen RD LLC Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc. Janssen Healthcare Innovation Janssen Diagnostics Veridex, LLC These products offer medicines that treat widespread diseases. 3.2.3. Medical device Diagnostics Advanced Sterilization Products Animas Corporation Cordis Corporation DePuy Synthes Companies of Johnson Johnson Ethicon,  Inc. Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc. Johnson Johnson Vision Care, Inc. LifeScan, Inc. Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Inc. These products might be used in professional fields, such as physicians, nurses, hospitals, and diagnostic laboratories. It has gained the competitive advantage through knowledge of recognition and integration in the world, and achieved implementation and operation. With the development of Johnson Johnson, it has shaped a very complicated company. There are approximately more than 200 different type of products are formed in three departments. To what extent the success of Johnson Johnson could achieve is depends on the relationship between three departments and other business departments. In the past 10 years, Johnson Johnson has purchased more than 60 small firms. It focus on managing the knowledge. Usually, corporation has the following ways to grow: internal expansion, exporting, licensing, franchising, mergers and acquisitions, and geographic expansion. (Bruce R. Barringer, Daniel W. Greening, 1998). These strategies support corporations to enter new markets, as well as develop corporations resources through different countries or regions. Previous studies have revealed that geographic expansion is a new operation in a different area. (Hsien-Jui Chung, Chun-Chung Chen, Tsun-jui Hsieh, 2007). It might form international supply chains, which firms would purchase components, raw materials and services. It was significant to gain growth and enhance performance when Johnson Johnson has set up the first foreign firm in 1924. Geographic expansion would bring a lot of advantages (Farok J. Contractor, Sumit K. Kundu and Chin-Chun Hsu, 2003) Global market often give more scope for economies of scale, which in this case study, has changed Johnson Johnson into a global firm. As Dicken (2011) mentioned that global economy are connected with geographical and organizational structure. He (2011, p. 96) pointed out closely related to the issues of geographical scale and organizational loci is the importance of territoriality in networks. Findings To sum up, from what is discussed above, Johnson Johnson is a global corporation. As a result of some literature, there would be two measurements to determine whether the corporation is globalised or not, which is from organizational and geographical scale. Firstly, Johnson Johnson has complicated corporate structure, it has executive committee to manage and operate Johnson Johnson. Compared with its geographical scale, Johnson Johnson has more than 250 branches and subsidiaries all over the world. Then corporations earn profits from the globalisation economy, which is why many international company would like to expand their subsidiaries and branches to other different countries or regions. Discussion Globalisation plays an important role, it changes the world economy. Firstly, it increases the trade from one country to another. Apart from that, globalisation makes economy prosperous because it raised foreign direct investment while there might be some limitations. When a company is already a global company, what should be their next steps or strategies? Is globalisation the destination for one company? In accordance to some literatures, globalization is end of geography (OBRIEN, 1992). Increasingly companies have gained more profits from globalization, in other words, the progress of globalization gets advantages for enterprises. Conclusions So far, for many people, it is hard to explain what are international corporations and global corporations, because internationalization and globalization cannot be easily distinguished, but actually there are different. Consequently, they can be differentiated by the geographic scale and corporation structure. Globalized companies often owns similar structures. It is easier to understand from some literatures. In this report, a case study of Johnson Johnson has determined that it is a global corporation by analysing its corporate structure, different product lines and company strategies. In competitive business circumstance, globalisation is an inevitable trend, not only for companies, but for the macro-economy. Globalisation makes the whole world look like borderless, it might boost international business.

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Prostitutes in Ancient Athens Essay -- History Greece Creek Females Es

Prostitutes in Ancient Athens Works Cited Missing Ancient Athens was a highly polarized society in which citizenship meant everything. Citizenship permitted individuals to not only participate in the democratic government but also gave them access to all the rights and splendors of the city. A citizen controlled influence over slaves, foreigners and most importantly women. Athenian women were relegated to the status of child bearers and keepers of the household. There was no room for personal expression or freedom and the strict moral code in many cases restricted these women from even leaving their homes. There was a select group of women however who overcame these obstacles to achieve greater sexual, economical, and social freedom. They were the prostitutes. The freedom which prostitutes enjoyed would be better understood only after first assessing the status of "respectable" women in Athens. Girls were raised from an early age to learn domestic affairs and were to be wed even as early as the age of fourteen (Just 1989: 40). Marriage was almost mandatory as single women were looked upon as shameful and might even be labeled as "whores". The wedding was almost always arranged by the father or kyrios and from this point on the woman's role was clear. Pericles gives a good explanation of the ideal wife in his famous Funeral Oration when reminding the women of Athens that: "Your great glory is not to be inferior in the way nature made you; and the greatest glory is hers who is least talked about by men, whether in praise or in blame (Thucydides: 2.45)." This implies that an Athenian's woman virtue lay in her absence from the public eye. Athenians made sure to protect their wives' virtue by excluding women f... ...culed on the stage and was later brought to trial on charges of "impiety (Cantarella 1987: 55)." Her individuality and intelligence not only angered but frightened the Athenian misogynists even though she was eventually acquitted. Aspasia clearly shows how much freedom was available to a prostitute in Athenian society. The life of the prostitute in Athens was clearly a more liberal lifestyle than most women enjoyed in which the woman could aspire to wealth, independence and even indirect political power. The only setback to these benefits was the scorn of women and the contempt of men when a prostitute became too prominent. Women like Aspasia helped introduce an early type of feminism in the unlikeliest of settings. The Athenian prostitutes were clearly women that refused to succumb to the male dominated society that saw women as inherently inferior beings.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Media assignment †Of Mice and Men Essay

Task: compare the opening sections of the two films versions of Of Mice and Men – the 1939 black and white film starring Lon Chaney Junior and Burgess Meredith, and the 1981 colour version starring Randy Quaid and Robert Blake. You should look at the sections from the beginning of each film to the point where in each one Lennie says, â€Å"I’m shutting up,† on the night before they go down to the ranch. The 1939 version starts off with George and Lennie running away from a group of angry men. Both sets of people are running on foot, this is different in the 1981 film because the pursuers are on horseback. The 1939 film is obviously shot in a studio because the back projection is easy to make out, also there is no sense of distance between the chasers and the chased because they are never seen in the same shot because the studio is not big enough to have a long shot so all of the shots are close-ups. However the 1981 film it is shot outdoors and the pursuers are on horseback in the 1981 film to make it more exciting and to shorten the odds on George and Lennie’s escape. Having horses would be impossible in the 1939 film because it is shot in the studio and it would have been very hard for them to shoot a chase with horses in. There is a very different use of music in the opening sections, in the 1939 film there is little use of music and it does not change during the chase however the 1981 film uses music very obviously to â€Å"make the viewing more pleasurable.† Whenever George and Lennie are on shot the music is all jumpy as if the characters are being chased (which they are!) this gets the viewers attention up and helps them to feel part of the chase. Whenever the chasers are on screen there is â€Å"bad-guy music† and this shows the viewer that they are the bad-guys and George and Lennie are the good guys. This is a very simple technique to use but the 1939 film does not even need to. The only technique it uses is it has a very peaceful scene with some rabbits at and this peacefulness is broken up by the thrill of the chase. There is a big contrast here and it is designed to take the viewer surprise and keep them interested. This is significant and symbolic because George and Lennie are peaceful and all of their plans are made and then they are destroyed as if horses have trampled on them. There are also clouds that are seen usually at the start of a storm and this could signify the start of the storm for George and Lennie. The 1981 film was made for television, to keep the viewer interested they have the credits over the top of the action and because of this the credits are done with just text over the picture, they are presented very simply and this is because it is faster to do it this way so that it takes up less of the film and it can be done over the action without ruining that action. In the 1939 film it was one of the first films ever to have action before the credits. This meant that they took time over the credits because they were actually in the middle of a scene. An extract from the poem that the book and therefore the film are connected to is written of the side of the train carriage as if it has been written there. Then the writers name comes up in what looks like a handwritten font to look like a signature. The 1939 film mentions the poem by Robert Burns, which goes: â€Å"The best-laid plans o’ mice an’ men Gang aft a-gley, An’ lea’e us nought but grief an’ pain For promised joy.† This is significant because the film is about plans made by George and Lennie which seem to be god and nothing could go wrong with them but something goes drastically wrong and leave George and Lennie with nought but grief an’ pain. The 1939 film does mention this however the book on which the film was based and the 1981 film do not. This could be because the 1939 film considers its viewers intelligent enough to understand and that they are at the cinema for a bit of culture however the 1981 film was made for television and so just for the action of it and it would not want to bore its viewers with poetry since most of the viewers will be watching for the action of the film rather than the significance of a link to a poem. The remaining credits are done skilfully and use the motion of the train and the objects that go past as wipes to change the credit picture so that it almost looks like they are actually written on the train. The way that the credits break up the action and are in between two sections of the film show us that time has elapsed and that the beginning was just setting the scene and the rest of the film is the main storyline. In the 1981 film there is a whole section with Aunt Clara that is not in the original film on which the later one is based. When George and Lennie are walking to Aunt Clara’s the music in the background is â€Å"Red River Valley† played on the mouth organ. This tells us a lot because the mouth organ was an instrument used a lot in â€Å"old school† western movies so tells us where and when this film is set. A more important point is that the song is about going home and that implies that Aunt Clara is â€Å"home.† At Aunt Clara’s we are shown by his actions what Lennie is like when he says, â€Å"I’ve been here before† and â€Å"Aren’t you going to eat your pie George?† This is a comical thing to say and produced some laughs while we were watching it but also shows that Lennie acts like a small child in the things that he says and does. Lennie obviously hero-worships George when he repeats everything George says and he is shown to be not so bright when he calls his own Aunt ma’am. George â€Å"moans† to Aunt Clara and the words are nearly exactly the same as when he moans to Lennie in the woods later on in this film and in the same place in the 1939 film. This could show that George is bitter about having Lennie tagging along with hi but the fact that he uses the same words again means that it is rehearsed and the words do not come from the heart so he does not really mean them. This also sets the scene for us when George says, â€Å"He ain’t no kin.† This tells us that George and Lennie are not related. The writer feels that he might need this scene in the film because Aunt Clara is mentioned later on and the fact that the film is intended for television where you get people watching who are not paying a lot of attention means that actions and characters need explaining more thoroughly. This also explains the music and some of Lennie’s comments such as â€Å"I’ve been here before.† George is presented a lot differently in the 1981 film than in the earlier version. The fact that George could even consider leaving Lennie would be impossible in the 1939 version. Even in the 1981 version George stutters when e tells Lennie to sit and wait as if he is not sure whether he should be doing it and that it is not planned. George then looks at Aunt Clara whose expression is impossible to read which tells us that she perhaps can understand why George would want to leave Lennie (backed up by her agreement to George’s moans earlier on) but does not think that he will go through with it (which he doesn’t.) Lennie then fidgets and looks helpless when George gets a lift, George has always been around and is Lennie’s â€Å"comfort blanket.† Lennie has complete faith in George when he mutters, â€Å"I know you’re going to come back† but this is heard when an image of George on the truck seen and this makes the viewer very doubtful to whet her Lennie is right to place his faith in George. There is more use of music when George walks back after changing his mind. There is music playing when George walks back which suggests that time has passed and it is used so that it is not silent. The music stands still when George stands still and jumps when Lennie jumps and there is â€Å"bad-guy music† when the bad-guys are on and â€Å"chasey† music when Lennie has to run. This music is to try and get the viewer involved and to help them understand the film. This is a literalist use of music but is also a simple technique and it provides the viewer with a sense of excitement and involvement. The 1939 film does not use this technique at all. The following chase in the 1981 film is very similar to the original chase in the 1939 film and the later film could even start there and miss out anything before it if it wanted to be the same as the film that it was based upon. It is shot outside and the chasers are on horseback, they are running a different way and there are long shots indicating distances and George and Lennie lose them in a different way but simply George and Lennie are being chased and are almost caught but somehow they manage to get away. Both films then have George and Lennie travelling, in the 1939 film they are on the bus and in the 1981 film they are walking down the railway track. Both films suggest that they have travelled a long way, they fact that they are on the bus shows that it was too far to walk and on the railway track you can se for miles backwards and that implies that they have walked for miles from â€Å"backwards.† When George throws the stone at the advert in the 1939 film it is a very good shot to hit the face and this is not very good film making – simply too good to be true. He throws the stone because there is an advert for the railway and by taking the bus they will have to walk for ten miles. The person on the advert is smiling a lot so this will irritate George because he will not be in the mood for smiling. Other examples of shots being done artificially include the huge amount of back-projection used in the 1939 film and the small amount used in 1981. The 1939 back projection includes: the original chase; jumping onto the train shown by the actors running on the spot and then stopping when they get on to the train and on the bus, first when sitting down and next when near the driver, shown by the phoney movement of the drivers arms on the wheel (there are fake bus noises when it stops, using brakes and then pulls away again.) The scene by the watering pond it is shot in a studio where again fake running water noises are used and fake bug noises that are â€Å"supposed† to be realistic but in the 1981 film it is shot outside in the real open air and there are no bug noises there because none have been added in. The only place where back-projection was obvious in the 1981 film was when George was sitting on the truck and behind him was back-projection, cleverly edited with long-shots that were real and real film when he got on and off. Back-projection was used a lot more in the earlier film because by 1981 it was possible to do a lot more filming outside because technology had improved. The 1981 film uses other techniques though. The choice of music is very important because the music nearly always has meaning, this can be as explained above or by the actual piece of music itself. â€Å"Red River Valley† is used again when George and Lennie are by the river and because it is a song about going home it suggests that George and Lennie are going t their new home, which will be the ranch. â€Å"New World Symphony† is used when George and Lennie are walking along after the visit to Aunt Clara’s and the second chase. â€Å"New World Symphony† is based on a song â€Å"Going Home† which is used at funerals, this could mean that George and Lennie are on a trip to take one of them (Lennie) home for good. All the music is played on the harmonica, which is a plaintive instrument that amplifies the point that the songs are making. The last scene by the river are almost word-for-word the same in both films. The second film is an adaptation on the first film so this is to be expected. Even the acting of the four men is very similar and the moving around is the same. This could be because the adaptors of the second film have liked the way the first film does this part of the production and could not think of a better way to do it so they did it in exactly the same way as the first film.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Talk About Geologic Time in Ma or Myr

Talk About Geologic Time in Ma or Myr Geologists have a bit of awkwardness in their language in talking about the deep past: distinguishing dates in the past from durations  or ages. Ordinary people dont have a problem with the weirdness of historical time- in 2017; we can easily say that an event in B.C.E. 200 happened 2216 years ago,  and that an object made back then is 2216 years old today. (Remember, there was no year 0.) But geologists have a need to separate out the two types of time with different abbreviations or symbols, and there is a debate about establishing a standard way of expressing it. A widespread practice has arisen in the last few decades that gives dates (not ages) in the format X Ma (x million years ago); for example, rocks that formed 5 million years ago are said to date from 5 Ma. 5 Ma is a point in time that is 5 million years from the present. And instead of saying that a rock is 5 Ma old, geologists use a different abbreviation, such as m.y., mya, myr, or Myr (all of which stand for millions of years, in reference to age or duration). This is a little awkward, but the  context makes things clear. Agreeing on a Definition for Ma Some scientists see no need for two different symbols or abbreviations, as something formed 5 million years before the present would indeed be 5 million years old. They are in favor of one system or set of symbols for all sciences, from geology and chemistry to astrophysics and nuclear physics. They wish to use Ma for both, which has caused some concern from geologists, who want to make the distinction and view it as unnecessarily confusing going forward to have Ma apply to both. Recently the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) and the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS) convened a task force to decide on an official definition of the year to go into the Systà ¨me International or SI, the metric system. The exact definition isnt important here, but the symbol they chose, a, (for the Latin annus, which translates to year) would override geological custom by requiring everyone to use Ma for millions of years ago, ka for thousands of years ago, and Ga for billions of years ago, etc. everywhere. That would make writing geology papers somewhat harder, but we could adjust. But Nicholas Christie-Blick of Columbia University has looked more deeply at the proposal and cried foul in GSA Today. He raised an important question: How can SI accommodate the year as a derived unit when SI rules require that these must be simple powers of base units? The metric system is for physical quantities and measurable distances, not time: points in time are not units. Theres no room in the rules for a derived unit called the year, which would be defined as 31,556,925.445 s. Derived units are things like the gram (10 -3 kg). If this were a legal dispute, Christie-Blick would be arguing that the year has no standing. Start over, he says, and get buy-in from geologists.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

How to Begin Your Career in Architecture

How to Begin Your Career in Architecture As in any profession, the steps to be an architect seem simple, involve a lot of hard work, and can be filled with fun. Simply put, becoming an architect involves education, experience, and examinations. Your journey from student to professional architect will move through several stages. You begin by choosing the right school for you. Step 1: School Some people become interested in designing and building things while still in high school is a great place to start to become an architect. Since the 19th century when architecture became a profession in the United States, you have to go to college to be an architect. This is the 21st century. But, many paths can lead to a career in architecture. In fact, you can become an architect even if you earn a bachelors degree from a school without an architecture program. But its a little more complicated. What is called higher education comes at different levels - undergraduate and graduate. You can earn an undergraduate degree in most anything - English, History, Engineering - and then be admitted to a graduate program in architecture to earn a professional degree in architecture. So, you dont even have to decide if you want to be an architect until after you receive a bachelors degree. Going this route, a professional masters degree in architecture (M.Arch) may take an additional three years beyond your four-year degree. You can also become an architect with a professional undergraduate degree (B.Arch), which in many architecture schools takes five years to complete. Yes, its a five-year program, and you only earn an undergraduate degree. A vital area of architectural study is the Design Studio, which is hands-on experience that consumes a lot of time. For students less interested in becoming an architect but still interested in architecture, most schools also offer NON-professional degrees in architecture - without the Design Studio. It turns out there are plenty of opportunities for architecture majors as well as for professional architects. Choosing the school that best fits your needs is the first step. If you possibly can, begin your career in architecture while still in school. Consider joining the American Institute of Architecture Students (AIAS). Look for a part-time job related to architecture or design. Do clerical work, drafting, or crowdsourcing for an architect or designer. Consider volunteering for an emergency relief organization or charitable program that provides design services for those in need. Whether you are paid or not, the experience will give you the opportunity to develop your skills and build a strong portfolio. Hopefully youve chosen a school with an active alumni. Does your university sponsor alumni homecomings, bringing your schools graduates back on campus? Get your face out there among the established architects - whether these gatherings are called networking opportunities or meet and greet gatherings, mingle with the people that you will forever be associated with as alumnus of the same college. Alumni are also a great source for externships. Usually short-term and unpaid, externships can do a number of things for your career. Externships can (1) kickstart the experience section of your resume; (2) help you test the waters, observing a real work environment, without the pressure and stress of having to produce a product like a project or paper; (3) allow you to shadow a professional architect for a day or work week, getting a feel for the professional side of architecture; and (4) help you determine your comfort level in a small or large architectural firm. Louisiana State University calls their externship program a chance to Get out of town! The difference between an externship and an internship is found in the name - an extern is external to the workplace, and all expenses are usually the responsibility of the extern; an intern is internal to the organization and is often paid an entry-level wage. Step 2: Architecture Experience Yay! Youve graduated from college or graduate school. Most graduates work for several years as interns in a professional architectural firm before they take licensing exams and become registered architects. For help finding an entry-level position, visit the career center at your college. Also look to your professors for guidance. But, the term intern is on its way out.  The National Council of Architectural Registration Boards (NCARB), the licensing organization for architects, is highly involved with helping architecture firms mold neophytes into architects ready to contribute to a practice. Before you can even apply to take the test to become a registered architect, you have to have experience. What used to be called the Intern Development Program (IDP) is now the Architectural Experience Programâ„ ¢ or AXPâ„ ¢.  A beginning professional needs 3,740 hours of experience before earning a professional license. AXP certification is a requirement for initial registration to sit for the licensing exams. These required hours are associated with nearly 100 tasks  - for example, Review shop drawings and submittals during construction for conformance with design intent. How do you log experience?  Now theres an app for that  - My AXP App. How does NCARB help? Architecture firms are businesses and not schools - professional hours are best spent doing the business of architecture along with training new hires. NCARB helps the new graduate transition from being a student to becoming a professional without using some of a firms billable hours. Dr. Lee Waldrep, author of the Becoming an Architect book series, explains the value of this program when it was called IDP: In a recent discussion with an intern-architect a few years out of school, she confessed that while architecture school prepared her to think and design, it did not sufficiently prepare her to work in an architectural office. She further admitted that IDP, with its training areas, simply lists out what you need to do. Step 3: Licensing Exams In the United States and Canada, architects must take and pass the Architect Registration Examination (ARE) to receive a professional license in architecture. The ARE exams are rigorous - some students take extra coursework to prepare. A new set of exams, ARE 5.0, was implemented in November 2016. Although the tests are completely online, you cannot use your own computer. NCARB, the licensing organization that creates the test questions, works with Prometric test centers who administers the exams. Study for and taking the exams are usually accomplished during the AXP experience-gathering phase of a professional career. This can be the most stressful part of the process of becoming an architect - generally, youre not getting paid very much (because you are not a peak contributor to the architecture firm), preparing and taking exams is stressful, and all this comes at a time when your personal life is also in transition. Remember, however, that you are not the first person to go thro ugh these times. Step 4: Building a Profession After completing the ARE, some early-career professionals find jobs at the same firms where they first gained experience. Others seek employment elsewhere, sometimes in careers that are peripheral to architecture itself. Some architects start their own small firms after licensure. They may go it alone or team up with ex-classmates or co-workers. A strong career network will pave the way toward success. Many architects begin their careers in the public sector. State, local, and federal governments all hire architects. Generally, the jobs (and incomes) are stable, control and creativity may be limited, but your personal life that may have been put on hold can be reawakened. Lastly, its important to remember that many successful architects dont come into their own until they are into their 60s. When most people are set to retire, the architect is just beginning. Be in it for the long haul. Summary: Becoming an Architect Stage One: Complete an accredited professional architecture program at the undergranduate or graduate levelStage Two: On-the-job experienceStage Three: Pass the licensing exams - only then can you call yourself an architect.Stage Four: Follow your dream Sources Externships, LSU College of Art Design, [accessed April 29, 2016]History of the AXP,  National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, [accessed May 31, 2018]Architectural Experience Program Guidelines, National Council of Architectural Registration Boards, PDF at [accessed May 31, 2018]Becoming an Architect by Lee W. Waldrep, Wiley Sons, 2006, p. 195

Monday, November 4, 2019

Problems in teaching history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Problems in teaching history - Essay Example Consequently, the subject appears to be, not surprisingly, unloved by pupils. The given paper will discuss what is wrong with American history and why it appears to be false and really boring for students. Young people, who enter higher level institutions and start learning history there, usually become surprised, because many historical facts they were taught in school appear to be different. However, many people do not enter such establishments and many of those who do choose not to learn history. They do not want to continue learning it, because schools do not usually accept discussions and debates. Thus, the discipline is turned into gathering of logically disconnected uninteresting facts, while a lot of remarkable ones are missed because they are unlikable. In order not to explain to students the facts, which are not very pleasant for American citizens, instructors prefer to exclude them. Therefore, pupils do not know about real events and, as they usually omit negative ones, they call there past â€Å"good old days†. This automatically generates an opinion that America always acted properly, without any mistakes. Young people think that the United States is the best country in the world and other countries just envy and try to imitate its behavior. Believing that other countries are admiring the United States, young people become shocked, when something like the events of 9/11 happen. Suddenly, they got to know that many nations hate Americans, but can’t understand why, because did not learn real historical facts. The history is false and that is why it is uninteresting. James Loewen explains: The same things that make history false are what makes it boring. Many high school history teachers are teaching out of field. That is, they don’t have a degree in history or a related discipline. And they usually aren’t even interested in history. So they

Friday, November 1, 2019

Academic Honesty Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Academic Honesty - Assignment Example Other academic misconduct includes tampering with the already filed educational reports or data (Ariely 33). God discriminates dishonesty. Moses discourages people from having different weights in the same bag namely a considerable weight and a small one. In the book of Proverbs, the Lord abominates a false balance and is proud of right weight (New International Version, Deut, 25:13). The Bible discourages people from lying. Proverbs 21:6 states that when one acquires treasures by a lying tongue, is like a fleeting vapor. This is a pursuit of death. Being successful through dishonesty is also condemned. Anyone building a house not in righteousness using his neighbors without paying them, shall be punished (New International Version, Jeremiah 22:13). God expects us to be honest. The Bibles talks of people deserving honesty from the heart. One is to utter truthfully and sincerely. This is the wisdom that everyone is supposed to ask from God (New International Version, Psalms 51:6). The Bible teaches us that being dishonest by telling lies about someone is so harmful. Biblically, it compares to hitting someone with an ax, or wounding the person with a sword or even shooting him/her with a sharp arrow. In business dealing, God does not approve of dishonesty. The Load is unpleased with dishonest scales and differing weights (New International Version, Prov 20:23) The Bible encourages honesty at all times. I Thessalonians 2:3 tells us that the preachers were preaching not by telling lies or falls motives but were very sincere and straight forward. II Corinthians 8:21 also talks about the fact that they were taking pain in doing right in both the eyes of God and man (New International Version, II Cor 8:21). God involves honesty in two of the commandments. These are on the commandment that prohibits us from stealing and the one that tells us not to give testimonies, which are not true against our neighbors (New International Version, Exodus